Hydrogen energy production technologies are growing in numbers with the aspiration for a greener and cleaner environment. And it is an undeniably emerging economy.
Research and development for the use of these technologies has resulted to over 500 existing refueling stations all over the world as of February 2014 with more being built on a regular basis. (Data from the list made by Fuel Cells 2000). This is indicative of the viability and acceptability of it as an alternative to fossil fuel.
Manufacturing technologies includes:
Make it from natural gas by means of three different chemical processes:
FLOW CHART OF A STEAM REFORMER:
Source/s:HyFLEET:CUTE Production from coal through a variety of gasification processes: e.g.
Production from Capture and storage of CO2
Production from Water Electrolysis
Production from Biomass
The first commercial production technology, dates from the late 1920s, was the electrolysis of water for pure hydrogen production. In the 1960s, the industrial production of hydrogen shifted slowly towards a fossil-based feedstock, which is the main source for hydrogen today.
Current world production is not monitored, but is estimated at around 45 million tons, or 500 million cubic metres, per year. If used for energy purposes, this would be roughly equivalent to 1% of global primary energy demand. The vast majority of this is produced by reforming fossil fuels (see Table 1), principally natural gas but also oil and coal. Roughly half of this global production is used in the manufacture of ammonia-based fertilizers, with oil refineries accounting for most of the remainder.
Source/s:CAN-Europe Tech Sheet 09
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